Category Archives: General

English Vocabulary Latin Prefixes

Latin Prefixes :

SNo. Prefix Meaning Examples
1 A- not, without amoral, APATHY, ANOMALY
2 AB-, ABS- away from, off, apart abrupt, ABSCOND, ABSTRACT
3 AD-, AC-, AN-, AS- toward, against advent, accurate, ANNOTATE, assent
4 AMBI-, AMB- around, about, on both sides AMBIGUOUS, AMBIVALENT
5 ANTE- before, in front of, early antecede, antedate, antebellum
6 ARCH main, chief archangel, archbishop, archenemy
7 BI- two bifurcate, biannually
8 BENE- well BENEFACTOR, benefit, beneficial
9 CIRCUM-, CIRA- around, about circumflex, circumference, circa
10 CIS- on this side of cislunar, cisalpine
11 CON- with, together concur, concede, CONSCRIPT
12 COM-, COR-, COL- together, with, very COMPRISE, corrode, colleteral
13 CONTRA- against contradict, controversy, contravene
14 COUNTER- against counterfeit, counterclockwise
15 DE- down, down from, off, utterly deformed, defoliate, descend, depress
16 DEMI- half, partly belongs to demisemiquaver, demigod
17 DIS-, DI-, DIF- apart, in different directions DIGRESS, divorce, dispute, DISCERN
18 DU-, DUO- two duet, duplicate
19 EM- EN- in, into embrace, enclose
20 EX-, E-, EF-, EC- out, out of, from, away EXTOL, event, expel, evade, ELUCIDATE
21 EXTRA-,EXTRO- outside of, beyond extraordinary, extrovert, EXTRAPOLATE
22 FORE before forestall, forgo, forebear
23 IN-, I-, IL-, IM-, IR- in, into, on, toward, put into, incision, impel, impulse, irrigate,
24 not, lacking, without illegal, ignominious, impure, immoral,
25 (same as above) immodest, indecent, INCOHERENT
26 INDU-, INDI- a strengthened form of IN- indigent
27 INFRA- below, beneath, inferior to, after infrared, infrasonic
28 INTER-, INTEL- among, between, at intervals intercede, intercept, intellect
29 INTRA- in, within, inside of intramural, intravenous
30 INTRO- in, into, within introduce, introspective
31 JUXTA near, beside juxtapose, juxtaposition
32 MAL-, MALE- evil, badly malformed, malicious, malaise, maladroit
33 MEDI-, MEDIO- middle median, mediocre
34 MILLI-, MILLE- thousand millennium, millimeter
36 MULTI-, MULTUS- much, many multifaceted, multiply, multilevel
37 NE- not neuter, NEUTRAL
38 NON- not (less emphatic than IN or UN) nonresident, nonconformity
39 NUL-, NULL- none, not any nullify, nullification
40 OB-, OF-, OC-, toward, against, across, down, for oblong, OBDURATE, offer, occasion, occur
41 OP-, O- toward, against, across, down, for oppose, opposite, omit, offer
42 OMNI- all, everywhere omniscient, omnivorous
43 PED-, PEDI- foot pedestrian, pedicure
44 PER-, PEL- through, by, thoroughly, away PERMEATE, perfidy, pellucid
45 POST- behind, after (in time or place) postpone, postnatal, postorbital
46 PRE- before, early, toward precedent, precept, preposition
47 PRO-, PUR- before, for, forth proceed, purport, pursue, PROLONG
48 QUADRI-, QUADR- four times, four fold quadriceps, quadrisect, quadrangle
49 RE-, RED- back, again, against, behind repel, RELEGATE, redeem, redemption
50 RETRO- backwards, behind retrogressive, retrofit, retrograde
51 SE-, SED- aside, apart, away from secure, seduce, seclude, sedition, select
52 SEMI- half semicircle, semiprivate
53 SINE without sinecure
54 SUB-, SUC-, SUF- under, beneath, inferior, suffer, SUBMISSIVE, succumb,
55 SUG-, SUM-, SUP- less than, in place of, secretly suggest, subtract, suffuse, support
56 SUR-, SUS- (same as above meanings) suspend, surplus
57 SUBTER- beneath, secretly subterfuge
58 SUPER-, SUPRA- over, above, excessively SUPERFICIAL, SUPERCILIOUS
59 SUR- over, above, excessively surcharge, surtax, surplus, surrealism
60 TRANS-, TRA- across, over, beyond, through transoceanic, transgression, transit, transition
61 TRI- three triangle, triceps
62 ULTRA- beyond, on other side ultrasound, ultraconservative
63 UN- (Old English) no, not, without unabashed, unashamed

How to configure Proxy Settings for the Unix / Linux Console

You can use the following methods to configure your console to use a proxy server so that console based programs like wget could get connect to the internet through the proxy.

1 – Set the environment variable
# export http_proxy=http://DOMAIN\USERNAME:PASSWORD@SERVER:PORT/

In the above configuration you can ommit the DOMAIN\USERNAME:PASSWORD@ part if you are not using proxy authentication.

Note: If you get the following error when you try to use wget, you might have to pass the proxy authentication credentials to wget as arguments.

Connecting to SERVER:PORT... connected.
Proxy request sent, awaiting response... 407 Proxy Authentication Required
11:14:45 ERROR 407: Proxy Authentication Required.
1.1 – Passing proxy authentication credentials to wget as arguments
$ wget --proxy-user "DOMAIN\USERNAME" --proxy-passwd "PASSWORD" URL
2 – Configure the proxy settings in the .bashrc
If you want set the proxy for all the users you can do it in the system wide .bashrc file.

nano /etc/bash.bashrc#proxy settings

Note: The system wide .bashrc file may not be available in all Linux systems and only can be used if you are using the bash shell

2.1 – Having an alias for wget with proxy
If you don’t want to pass the proxy arguments to wget all the time, you create an alias for wget in the .bashrc file

alias wget 'wget --proxy-user "DOMAIN\USERNAME" --proxy-passwd "PASSWORD"'

How to Unzip Multiple Files from Linux / Unix single Command Line

bash-3.2# ls *.zip

Problem :

bash-3.2# unzip *.zip
caution: filename not matched:
caution: filename not matched:
caution: filename not matched:
caution: filename not matched:
caution: filename not matched:
caution: filename not matched:
caution: filename not matched:
caution: filename not matched:
caution: filename not matched:
caution: filename not matched:
caution: filename not matched:
caution: filename not matched:
caution: filename not matched:
caution: filename not matched:
caution: filename not matched:
caution: filename not matched:
caution: filename not matched:

Solution :

Use single quotes [ ‘  ‘ ]
bash-3.2# unzip ‘*.zip’
inflating: 146470-08/LEGAL_LICENSE.TXT
inflating: 146470-08/prepatch
inflating: 146470-08/SUNWcsu/reloc/usr/share/lib/zoneinfo/EST
inflating: 146470-08/SUNWcsu/reloc/usr/share/lib/zoneinfo/tab/
inflating: 146470-08/SUNWcsu/reloc/usr/share/lib/zoneinfo/tab/
inflating: 146470-08/SUNWcsu/reloc/usr/share/lib/zoneinfo/Australia/Broken_Hill
inflating: 146470-08/SUNWcsu/reloc/usr/share/lib/zoneinfo/Australia/Eucla
inflating: 146470-08/SUNWcsu/reloc/usr/share/lib/zoneinfo/Australia/Melbourne
inflating: 146470-08/SUNWcsu/reloc/usr/share/lib/zoneinfo/Australia/Sydney
inflating: 146470-08/SUNWcsu/reloc/usr/share/lib/zoneinfo/Australia/Adelaide
inflating: 146470-08/SUNWcsu/reloc/usr/share/lib/zoneinfo/Australia/Perth
inflating: 146470-08/SUNWcsu/reloc/usr/share/lib/zoneinfo/Australia/Lord_Howe
inflating: 146470-08/SUNWcsu/reloc/usr/share/lib/zoneinfo/Australia/Hobart
inflating: 146470-08/SUNWcsu/reloc/usr/share/lib/zoneinfo/Australia/Currie

Delete Files Older Than x Days on Linux / Unix

The find utility on linux allows you to pass in a bunch of interesting arguments, including one to execute another command on each file. We’ll use this in order to figure out what files are older than a certain number of days, and then use the rm command to delete them.

Command Syntax

find /path/to/files* -mtime +5 -exec rm {} ;

Note that there are spaces between rm, {}, and ;


  • The first argument is the path to the files. This can be a path, a directory, or a wildcard as in the example above. I would recommend using the full path, and make sure that you run the command without the exec rm to make sure you are getting the right results.
  • The second argument, -mtime, is used to specify the number of days old that the file is. If you enter +5, it will find files older than 5 days.
  • The third argument, -exec, allows you to pass in a command such as rm. The {} ; at the end is required to end the command.

Operating System Tuning for Oracle Database

This chapter describes how to tune Oracle Database. It contains the following sections:

  • Importance of Tuning
  • Operating System Tools
  • Tuning Memory Management
  • Tuning Disk I/O
  • Monitoring Disk Performance
  • System Global Area
  • Tuning the Operating System Buffer Cache

1.1 Importance of Tuning

Oracle Database is a highly optimizable software product. Frequent tuning optimizes system performance and prevents data bottlenecks.

Before tuning the database, you must observe its normal behavior by using the tools described in the “Operating System Tools” section.

1.2 Operating System Tools

Several operating system tools are available to enable you to assess database performance and determine database requirements. In addition to providing statistics for Oracle processes, these tools provide statistics for CPU usage, interrupts, swapping, paging, context switching, and I/O for the entire system.

This section provides information about the following common tools:

  • vmstat
  • sar
  • iostat
  • swap, swapinfo, swapon, or lsps
  • AIX Tools
  • HP-UX Tools
  • Linux Tools
  • Solaris Tools
  • Mac OS X Tools

See Also:

The operating system documentation and man pages for more information about these tools

1.2.1 vmstat


On Mac OS X, the vm_stat command displays virtual memory information. Refer to the vm_stat man page for more information about using this command.

Use the vmstat command to view process, virtual memory, disk, trap, and CPU activity, depending on the switches that you supply with the command. Run one of the following commands to display a summary of CPU activity six times, at five-second intervals:

  • On HP-UX and Solaris:
  • AIX, Linux, and Tru64 UNIX:
·         $ vmstat -S 5 6
·         $ vmstat 5 6

The following is sample output of this command on HP-UX:

procs     memory            page            disk          faults      cpu
 r b w   swap  free  si  so pi po fr de sr f0 s0 s1 s3   in   sy   cs us sy id
 0 0 0   1892  5864   0   0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0   90   74   24  0  0 99
 0 0 0  85356  8372   0   0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0   46   25   21  0  0 100
 0 0 0  85356  8372   0   0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0   47   20   18  0  0 100
 0 0 0  85356  8372   0   0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  2   53   22   20  0  0 100
 0 0 0  85356  8372   0   0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0   87   23   21  0  0 100
 0 0 0  85356  8372   0   0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0   48   41   23  0  0 100

The w sub column, under the procs column, shows the number of potential processes that have been swapped out and written to disk. If the value is not zero, then swapping occurs and the system is short of memory.

The si and so columns under the page column indicate the number of swap-ins and swap-outs per second, respectively. Swap-ins and swap-outs should always be zero.

The sr column under the page column indicates the scan rate. High scan rates are caused by a shortage of available memory.

The pi and po columns under the page column indicate the number of page-ins and page-outs per second, respectively. It is normal for the number of page-ins and page-outs to increase. Some paging always occurs even on systems with sufficient available memory.


The output from the vmstat command differs across platforms.

See Also:

Refer to the man page for information about interpreting the output

8.2.2 sar

Depending on the switches that you supply with the command, use the sar (system activity reporter) command to display cumulative activity counters in the operating system.


On Tru64 UNIX systems, the sar command is available in the UNIX SVID2 compatibility subset, OSFSVID.

On an HP-UX system, the following command displays a summary of I/O activity ten times, at ten-second intervals:

$ sar -b 10 10

The following example shows the output of this command:

13:32:45 bread/s lread/s %rcache bwrit/s lwrit/s %wcache pread/s pwrit/s
13:32:55       0      14     100       3      10      69       0       0
13:33:05       0      12     100       4       4       5       0       0
13:33:15       0       1     100       0       0       0       0       0
13:33:25       0       1     100       0       0       0       0       0
13:33:35       0      17     100       5       6       7       0       0
13:33:45       0       1     100       0       0       0       0       0
13:33:55       0       9     100       2       8      80       0       0
13:34:05       0      10     100       4       4       5       0       0
13:34:15       0       7     100       2       2       0       0       0
13:34:25       0       0     100       0       0     100       0       0

Average        0       7     100       2       4      41       0       0

The sar output provides a snapshot of system I/O activity at a given point in time. If you specify the interval time with more than one option, then the output can become difficult to read. If you specify an interval time of less than 5, then the sar activity itself can affect the output.

See Also:

The man page for more information about sar

1.2.3 iostat

Use the iostat command to view terminal and disk activity, depending on the switches that you supply with the command. The output from the iostat command does not include disk request queues, but it shows which disks are busy. This information can be used to balance I/O loads.

The following command displays terminal and disk activity five times, at five-second intervals:

$ iostat 5 5

The following is sample output of the command on Solaris:

tty          fd0           sd0           sd1           sd3          cpu
 tin tout Kps tps serv  Kps tps serv  Kps tps serv  Kps tps serv  us sy wt id
   0    1   0   0    0    0   0   31    0   0   18    3   0   42   0  0  0 99
   0   16   0   0    0    0   0    0    0   0    0    1   0   14   0  0  0 100
   0   16   0   0    0    0   0    0    0   0    0    0   0    0   0  0  0 100
   0   16   0   0    0    0   0    0    0   0    0    0   0    0   0  0  0 100
   0   16   0   0    0    0   0    0    2   0   14   12   2   47   0  0  1 98

Use the iostat command to look for large disk request queues. A request queue shows how long the I/O requests on a particular disk device must wait to be serviced. Request queues are caused by a high volume of I/O requests to that disk or by I/O with long average seek times. Ideally, disk request queues should be at or near zero.

1.2.4 swap, swapinfo, swapon, or lsps

See Also:

“Determining Available and Used Swap Space” for information about swap space on Mac OS X systems

Use the swap, swapinfo, swapon, or lsps command to report information about swap space usage. A shortage of swap space can stop processes responding, leading to process failures with Out of Memory errors. The following table lists the appropriate command to use for each platform.

Platform Command
AIX lsps -a
HP-UX swapinfo -m
Linux and Tru64 UNIX swapon -s
Solaris swap -l and swap -s


The following example shows sample output from the swap -l command on Solaris:

swapfile             dev        swaplo blocks        free
/dev/dsk/c0t3d0s1    32,25      8      197592        162136

1.2.5 AIX Tools

The following sections describe tools available on AIX systems.

  • Base Operation System Tools
  • Performance Toolbox
  • System Management Interface Tool

See Also:

The AIX operating system documentation and man pages for more information about these tools Base Operation System Tools

The AIX Base Operation System (BOS) contains performance tools that are historically part of UNIX systems or are required to manage the implementation-specific features of AIX. The following table lists the most important BOS tools.

Tool Function
lsattr Displays the attributes of devices
lslv Displays information about a logical volume or the logical volume allocations of a physical volume
netstat Displays the contents of network-related data structures
nfsstat Displays statistics about Network File System (NFS) and Remote Procedure Call (RPC) activity
nice Changes the initial priority of a process
no Displays or sets network options
ps Displays the status of one or more processes
reorgvg Reorganizes the physical-partition allocation within a volume group
time Displays the elapsed execution, user CPU processing, and system CPU processing time
trace Records and reports selected system events
vmo Manages Virtual Memory Manager tunable parameters Performance Toolbox

The AIX Performance Toolbox (PTX) contains tools for monitoring and tuning system activity locally and remotely. PTX consists of two main components, the PTX Manager and the PTX Agent. The PTX Manager collects and displays data from various systems in the configuration by using the xmperf utility. The PTX Agent collects and transmits data to the PTX Manager by using the xmserd daemon. The PTX Agent is also available as a separate product called Performance Aide for AIX.

Both PTX and Performance Aide include the monitoring and tuning tools listed in the following table.

Tool Description
fdpr Optimizes an executable program for a particular workload
filemon Uses the trace facility to monitor and report the activity of the file system
fileplace Displays the placement of blocks of a file within logical or physical volumes
lockstat Displays statistics about contention for kernel locks
lvedit Facilitates interactive placement of logical volumes within a volume group
netpmon Uses the trace facility to report on network I/O and network-related CPU usage
rmss Simulates systems with various memory sizes for performance testing
svmon Captures and analyzes information about virtual-memory usage
syscalls Records and counts system calls
tprof Uses the trace facility to report CPU usage at module and source-code-statement levels
BigFoot Reports the memory access patterns of processes
stem Permits subroutine-level entry and exit instrumentation of existing executables


See Also:

  • Performance Toolbox for AIX Guide and Reference for information about these tools
  • AIX 5L Performance Management Guide for information about the syntax of some of these tools System Management Interface Tool

The AIX System Management Interface Tool (SMIT) provides a menu-driven interface to various system administrative and performance tools. By using SMIT, you can navigate through large numbers of tools and focus on the jobs that you want to perform.

1.2.6 HP-UX Tools

The following performance analysis tools are available on HP-UX systems:

  • GlancePlus/UX

This HP-UX utility is an online diagnostic tool that measures the activities of the system. GlancePlus displays information about how system resources are used. It displays dynamic information about the system I/O, CPU, and memory usage on a series of screens. You can use the utility to monitor how individual processes are using resources.

  • HP PAK

HP Programmer’s Analysis Kit (HP PAK) consists of the following tools:

  • Puma

This tool collects performance statistics during a program run. It provides several graphical displays for viewing and analyzing the collected statistics.

  • Thread Trace Visualizer (TTV)

This tool displays trace files produced by the instrumented thread library,, in a graphical format. It enables you to view how threads are interacting and to find where threads are blocked waiting for resources.

HP PAK is bundled with the HP Fortran 77, HP Fortran 90, HP C, HP C++, HP ANSI C++, and HP Pascal compilers.

The following table lists the performance tuning tools that you can use for additional performance tuning on HP-UX.

Tools Function
caliper (Itanium only) Collects run-time application data for system analysis tasks such as cache misses, translation look-aside buffer (TLB) or instruction cycles, along with fast dynamic instrumentation. It is a dynamic performance measurement tool for C, C++, Fortran, and assembly applications.
gprof Creates an execution profile for programs.
monitor Monitors the program counter and calls to certain functions.
netfmt Monitors the network.
netstat Reports statistics on network performance.
nfsstat Displays statistics about Network File System (NFS) and Remote Procedure Call (RPC) activity.
nettl Captures network events or packets by logging and tracing.
prof Creates an execution profile of C programs and displays performance statistics for your program, showing where your program is spending most of its execution time.
profil Copies program counter information into a buffer.
top Displays the top processes on the system and periodically updates the information.


1.2.7 Linux Tools

On Linux systems, use the top, free, and cat /proc/meminfo commands to view information about swap space, memory, and buffer usage.

1.2.8 Solaris Tools

On Solaris systems, use the mpstat command to view statistics for each processor in a multiprocessor system. Each row of the table represents the activity of one processor. The first row summarizes all activity since the last system restart. Each subsequent row summarizes activity for the preceding interval. All values are events per second unless otherwise noted. The arguments are for time intervals between statistics and number of iterations.

The following example shows sample output from the mpstat command:

CPU minf mjf xcal  intr ithr  csw icsw migr smtx  srw syscl  usr sys  wt idl
  0    0   0    1    71   21   23    0    0    0    0    55    0   0   0  99
  2    0   0    1    71   21   22    0    0    0    0    54    0   0   0  99
CPU minf mjf xcal  intr ithr  csw icsw migr smtx  srw syscl  usr sys  wt idl
  0    0   0    0    61   16   25    0    0    0    0    57    0   0   0 100
  2    1   0    0    72   16   24    0    0    0    0    59    0   0   0 100

1.2.9 Mac OS X Tools

You can use the following additional performance tuning tools:

  • Use the top command to display information about running processes and memory usage.
  • Use the Apple Computer Hardware Understanding Developer (CHUD) tools, such as Shark and BigTop, to monitor system activity and tune applications.

See Also:

For more information about the CHUD tools, refer to

1.3 Tuning Memory Management

Start the memory tuning process by measuring paging and swapping space to determine how much memory is available. After you determine your system memory usage, tune the Oracle buffer cache.

The Oracle buffer manager ensures that the most frequently accessed data is cached longer. If you monitor the buffer manager and tune the buffer cache, then you can significantly improve Oracle Database performance. The optimal Oracle Database buffer size for your system depends on the overall system load and the relative priority of Oracle Database over other applications.

This section includes the following topics:

  • Allocating Sufficient Swap Space
  • Controlling Paging
  • Adjusting Oracle Block Size

8.3.1 Allocating Sufficient Swap Space

Try to minimize swapping because it causes significant operating system overhead. To check for swapping, use the sar or vmstat commands. For information about the appropriate options to use with these commands, refer to the man pages.

If your system is swapping and you must conserve memory, then:

  • Avoid running unnecessary system daemon processes or application processes.
  • Decrease the number of database buffers to free some memory.
  • Decrease the number of operating system file buffers, especially if you are using raw devices.


On Mac OS X systems, swap space is allocated dynamically. If the operating system requires more swap space, then it creates additional swap files in the /private/var/vm directory. Ensure that the file system that contains this directory has sufficient free disk space to accommodate additional swap files. Refer “Determining Available and Used Swap Space” for more information on allocating swap space.

To determine the amount of swap space, run one of the following commands, depending on your platform:

Platform Command
AIX lsps -a
HP-UX swapinfo -m
Linux swapon -s
Solaris swap -l and swap -s
Tru64 UNIX swapon -s


To add swap space to your system, run one of the following commands, depending on your platform:

Platform Command
AIX chps or mkps
HP-UX swapon
Linux swapon -a
Solaris swap -a
Tru64 UNIX swapon -a


Set the swap space to between two and four times the physical memory. Monitor the use of swap space, and increase it as required.

See Also:

The operating system documentation for more information about these commands

1.3.2 Controlling Paging

Paging may not present as serious a problem as swapping, because an entire program does not have to be stored in memory to run. A small number of page-outs may not noticeably affect the performance of your system.

To detect excessive paging, run measurements during periods of fast response or idle time to compare against measurements from periods of slow response.

Use the vmstat (vm_stat on Mac OS X) or sar command to monitor paging.

See Also:

The man pages or your operating system documentation for information about interpreting the results for your platform

The following table lists the important columns from the output of these commands.

Platform Column Function
Solaris vflt/s Indicates the number of address translation page faults. Address translation faults occur when a process refers to a valid page not in memory.
Solaris rclm/s Indicates the number of valid pages that have been reclaimed and added to the free list by page-out activity. This value should be zero.
HP-UX at Indicates the number of address translation page faults. Address translation faults occur when a process refers to a valid page not in memory.
HP-UX re Indicates the number of valid pages that have been reclaimed and added to the free list by page-out activity. This value should be zero.


If your system consistently has excessive page-out activity, then consider the following solutions:

  • Install more memory.
  • Move some of the work to another system.
  • Configure the System Global Area (SGA) to use less memory.

1.3.3 Adjusting Oracle Block Size

During read operations, entire operating system blocks are read from the disk. If the database block size is smaller than the operating system file system block size, then I/O bandwidth is inefficient. If you set Oracle Database block size to be a multiple of the file system block size, then you can increase performance by up to 5 percent.

The DB_BLOCK_SIZE initialization parameter sets the database block size. However, to change the value of this parameter, you must re-create the database.

To see the current value of the DB_BLOCK_SIZE parameter, run the SHOW PARAMETER DB_BLOCK_SIZE command in SQL*Plus.

1.4 Tuning Disk I/O

Balance I/O evenly across all available disks to reduce disk access times. For smaller databases and those not using RAID, ensure that different data files and tablespaces are distributed across the available disks.

1.4.1 Using Automatic Storage Management

If you choose to use Automatic Storage Management for database storage, then all database I/O is balanced across all available disk devices in the Automatic Storage Management disk group. Automatic Storage Management provides the performance of raw device I/O without the inconvenience of managing raw devices.

By using Automatic Storage Management, you avoid manually tuning disk I/O.

1.4.2 Choosing the Appropriate File System Type

Depending on your operating system, you can choose from a range of file system types. Each file system type has different characteristics. This fact can have a substantial impact on database performance. The following table lists common file system types.

File System Platform Description
S5 HP-UX and Solaris UNIX System V file system
UFS AIX, HP-UX, Mac OS X, Solaris, Tru64 UNIX Unified file system, derived from BSD UNIXNote: On Mac OS X, Oracle does not recommend the use of the UFS file system for either software or database files.
VxFS AIX, HP-UX, and Solaris VERITAS file system
None All Raw devices (no file system)
ext2/ext3 Linux Extended file system for Linux
OCFS Linux Oracle cluster file system
AdvFS Tru64 UNIX Advanced file system
CFS Tru64 UNIX Cluster file system
JFS/JFS2 AIX Journaled file system
HFS Plus, HFSX Mac OS X HFS Plus is the standard hierarchical file system used by Mac OS X. HFSX is an extension to HFS Plus that enables case-sensitive file names.
GPFS AIX General parallel file system


The suitability of a file system for an application is usually not documented. For example, even different implementations of the Unified file system are hard to compare. Depending on the file system that you choose, performance differences can be up to 20 percent. If you choose to use a file system, then:

  • Make a new file system partition to ensure that the hard disk is clean and unfragmented.
  • Perform a file system check on the partition before using it for database files.
  • Distribute disk I/O as evenly as possible.
  • If you are not using a logical volume manager or a RAID device, then consider placing log files on a different file system from data files.

1.5 Monitoring Disk Performance

The following sections describe the procedure for monitoring disk performance.

Monitoring Disk Performance on Mac OS X

Use the iostat and sar commands to monitor disk performance. For more information about using these commands, refer to the man pages.

Monitoring Disk Performance on Other Operating Systems

To monitor disk performance, use the sar -b and sar -u commands.

The following table describes the columns of the sar -b command output that are significant for analyzing disk performance.

Columns Description
bread/s, bwrit/s Blocks read and blocks written per second (important for file system databases)
pread/s, pwrit/s Number of reads and writes per second from or to raw character devices.


An important sar -u column for analyzing disk performance is %wio, the percentage of CPU time spent waiting on blocked I/O.


Not all Linux distributions display the %wio column in the output of the sar -u command. For detailed I/O statistics, you can use iostat -x command.

Key indicators are:

  • The sum of the bread, bwrit, pread, and pwrit column values indicates the level of activity of the disk I/O subsystem. The higher the sum, the busier the I/O subsystem. The larger the number of physical drives, the higher the sum threshold number can be. A good default value is no more than 40 for 2 drives and no more than 60 for 4 to 8 drives.
  • The %rcache column value should be greater than 90 and the %wcache column value should be greater than 60. Otherwise, the system may be disk I/O bound.
  • If the %wio column value is consistently greater than 20, then the system is I/O bound.

1.6 System Global Area

The SGA is the Oracle structure that is located in shared memory. It contains static data structures, locks, and data buffers. Sufficient shared memory must be available to each Oracle process to address the entire SGA.

The maximum size of a single shared memory segment is specified by the shmmax (shm_max on Tru64 UNIX) kernel parameter.

The following table shows the recommended value for this parameter, depending on your platform.

Platform Recommended Value
HP-UX The size of the physical memory installed on the systemSee Also: HP-UX Shared Memory Segments for an Oracle Instance for information about the shmmax parameter on HP-UX
Linux Half the size of the physical memory installed on the system
Mac OS X Half the size of the physical memory installed on the system
Solaris and Tru64 UNIX 4294967295 or 4 GB minus 16 MBNote: The value of the shm_max parameter must be at least 16 MB for the Oracle Database instance to start. If your system runs both Oracle9i Database and Oracle Database 10g instances, then you must set the value of this parameter to 2 GB minus 16 MB. On Solaris, this value can be greater than 4 GB on 64-bit systems.


If the size of the SGA exceeds the maximum size of a shared memory segment (shmmax or shm_max), then Oracle Database attempts to attach more contiguous segments to fulfill the requested SGA size. The shmseg kernel parameter (shm_seg on Tru64 UNIX) specifies the maximum number of segments that can be attached by any process. Set the following initialization parameters to control the size of the SGA:


Alternatively, set the SGA_TARGET initialization parameter to enable automatic tuning of the SGA size.

Use caution when setting values for these parameters. When values are set too high, too much of the physical memory is devoted to shared memory. This results in poor performance.

An Oracle Database configured with Shared Server requires a higher setting for the SHARED_POOL_SIZE initialization parameter, or a custom configuration that uses the LARGE_POOL_SIZE initialization parameter. If you installed the database with Oracle Universal Installer, then the value of the SHARED_POOL_SIZE parameter is set automatically by Oracle Database Configuration Assistant. However, if you created a database manually, then increase the value of the SHARED_POOL_SIZE parameter in the parameter file by 1 KB for each concurrent user.

1.6.1 Determining the Size of the SGA

You can determine the SGA size in one of the following ways:

  • Run the following SQL*Plus command to display the size of the SGA for a running database:
·         SQL> SHOW SGA

The result is shown in bytes.

  • When you start your database instance, the size of the SGA is displayed next to the Total System Global Area heading.
  • On systems other than Mac OS X, run the ipcs command as the oracle user.

1.6.2 Shared Memory on AIX


The information in this section applies only to AIX.

Shared memory uses common virtual memory resources across processes. Processes share virtual memory segments through a common set of virtual memory translation resources, for example, tables and cached entries, for improved performance.

Shared memory can be pinned to prevent paging and to reduce I/O overhead. To perform this, set the LOCK_SGA parameter to true. On AIX 5L, the same parameter activates the large page feature whenever the underlying hardware supports it.

Run the following command to make pinned memory available to Oracle Database:

$ /usr/sbin/vmo -r -o v_pinshm=1

Run a command similar to the following to set the maximum percentage of real memory available for pinned memory, where percent_of_real_memory is the maximum percent of real memory that you want to set:

$ /usr/sbin/vmo -r -o maxpin%=percent_of_real_memory

When using the maxpin% option, it is important that the amount of pinned memory exceeds the Oracle SGA size by at least 3 percent of the real memory on the system, enabling free pinnable memory for use by the kernel. For example, if you have 2 GB of physical memory and you want to pin the SGA by 400 MB (20 percent of the RAM), then run the following command:

$ /usr/sbin/vmo -r -o maxpin%=23

Use the svmon command to monitor the use of pinned memory during the operation of the system. Oracle Database attempts to pin memory only if the LOCK_SGA parameter is set to true.

Large Page Feature on AIX POWER4- and POWER5-Based Systems

To turn on and reserve 10 large pages each of size 16 MB on a POWER4 or POWER 5 system, run the following command:

$ /usr/sbin/vmo -r -o lgpg_regions=10 -o lgpg_size=16777216

This command proposes bosboot and warns that a restart is required for the changes to take affect.

Oracle recommends specifying enough large pages to contain the entire SGA. The Oracle Database instance attempts to allocate large pages when the LOCK_SGA parameter is set to true. If the SGA size exceeds the size of memory available for pinning, or large pages, then the portion of the SGA exceeding these sizes is allocated to ordinary shared memory.

See Also:

The AIX documentation for more information about enabling and tuning pinned memory and large pages

1.7 Tuning the Operating System Buffer Cache

To take full advantage of raw devices, adjust the size of Oracle Database buffer cache. If memory is limited, then adjust the operating system buffer cache.

The operating system buffer cache holds blocks of data in memory while they are being transferred from memory to disk, or from disk to memory.

Oracle Database buffer cache is the area in memory that stores Oracle Database buffers. Because Oracle Database can use raw devices, it does not use the operating system buffer cache.

If you use raw devices, then increase the size of Oracle Database buffer cache. If the amount of memory on the system is limited, then make a corresponding decrease in the operating system buffer cache size.

Use the sar command to determine which buffer caches you must increase or decrease.

See Also:

The man page on Tru64 UNIX for more information about the sar command


On Tru64 UNIX, do not reduce the operating system buffer cache, because the operating system automatically resizes the amount of memory that it requires for buffering file system I/O. Restricting the operating system buffer cache can cause performance issues.

An appropriate representation of the requested resource /wp-admin/options-permalink.php could not be found on this server.

Not Acceptable

An appropriate representation of the requested resource /wp/wp-admin/options-permalink.php could not be found on this server.

Additionally, a 404 Not Found error was encountered while trying to use an ErrorDocument to handle the request.

I was getting below error, I believe it is to do with mod_security.

I have tested this by putting below entry in my .htaccess, But unfortunalty does not work for me, so raise a support ticket and disabled with hosting provider.

<IfModule mod_security.c>
  SecFilterEngine Off

You sure can do it manually. I am trying to find out why the page is blank too, but in the mean time I have manually altered the setting in PHPMyAdmin.

1. Go in to PHPMyAdmin
2. In the sidebar on the left select wp_options
3. Go to Page number: 2
4. click the pencil on the link with permalink_structure
5. In the big box next to option_value and input /%postname%

Unix Disabling Daemons / services from inetd.conf

Tune your system more by disabling all unwanted and unused daemons from running on the system. This can be done by  editing the /etc/inetd.conf file and the rc files or directories.

Modify the /etc/inetd.conf file and disable unnecessary daemons running on the system.
# vi /etc/inetd.conf
# Configuration file for inetd(1M). See inetd.conf(4).
# To re-configure the running inetd process, edit this file, then
# send the inetd process a SIGHUP. kill -HUP [PID]
#ftp stream tcp nowait root /usr/sbin/in.ftpd in.ftpd -l
#telnet stream tcp nowait root /usr/sbin/in.telnetd in.telnetd
#talk dgram udp wait root /usr/sbin/in.talkd in.talkd
#ntalk dgram udp wait root /usr/sbin/in.ntalkd in.ntalkd
#uucp stream tcp nowait root /usr/sbin/in.uucpd in.uucpd
#finger stream tcp nowait nobody /usr/sbin/in.fingerd in.fingerd
#tftp dgram udp wait root /usr/sbin/in.tftpd in.tftpd

#bootps dgram udp wait root /usr/sbin/in.bootpd in.bootpd
#talk dgram udp wait root /usr/sbin/tcpd in.talkd
After the /etc/inetd.conf file has been modified and daemons have been disabled, find the process ID (PID) of the inetd
daemon that is running and restart it with the kill -HUP command.
Flavor: AT&T
# ps -ef | grep inetd
root 124 1 ? S 30:57 /usr/sbin/inetd -s
ugu 10377 10378 pts/4 S 0:00 grep inetd
# kill -HUP 124
Flavor: BSD
# ps -ax | grep inetd
124 ? S 30:57 /usr/sbin/inetd -s
10377 pts/4 S 0:00 grep inetd
# kill -HUP 124

If accounting is turned on you can check the system log files (/var/adm/messages or /var/adm/SYSLOG) to verify the inetd daemon had restarted. If you check the process table again, you’ll see that the PID never changed. It isn’t suppose to. A kill  -HUP does not kill the process, it actually sends a hang-up signal. Many daemons, such as the inetd daemon, will catch the signal and reread its configuration file and continue running.
If the process didn’t restart and you can still connect to the daemons, it is not advisable but it is possible to kill the inetd daemon and restart it manually. It should be done in one single command line, if possible:

# kill 124; /usr/etc/inetd
Then check the process table ( ps -ef or ps -ax ) to verify that the daemon is running. This time it will have a new PID.

b2blog/evo_hitlog’ is marked as crashed and should be repaired(Errno=145)

This is the error I got yesterday:

MySQL error!

Table ‘./b2blog/evo_hitlog’ is marked as crashed and should be repaired(Errno=145)


Easily fixed though.

Logged in through SSH
Went to mySQL
Executed the command “repair table evo_hitlog;”


You can login to your webhosting Cpanel and go to databses and run “Repair DB”.

All Fixed. Hope it wasn’t a hacking attempt…



EMC Client installation and checking

This web page is a quick guide on what to install and how to check that EMC SAN is attached and working


Install Emulex driver/firmware, san packages (SANinfo, HBAinfo, lputil), EMC powerpath
Use lputil to update firmware
Use lputil to disable boot bios
Update /kernel/drv/lpfc.conf
Update /kernel/drv/sd.conf
Install ECC agent


Note: when adding disks on different FA had to reboot server?

List HBA’s /usr/sbin/hbanyware/hbacmd listHBAS   (use to get WWN’s)

/opt/HBAinfo/bin/gethbainfo           (script wrapped around hbainfo)

grep ‘WWN’ /var/adm/messages
HBA attributes /opt/EMLXemlxu/bin/emlxadm

/usr/sbin/hbanyware/hbacmd HBAAttrib 10:00:00:00:c9:49:28:47
HBA port /opt/EMLXemlxu/bin/emlxadm

/usr/sbin/hbanyware/hbacmd PortAttrib 10:00:00:00:c9:49:28:47
HBA firmware /opt/EMLXemlxu/bin/emlxadm
Fabric login /opt/HBAinfo/bin/gethbainfo           (script wrapped around hbainfo)
Adding Additional Disks cfgadm -c configure c2
Disk available cfgadm -al -o show_SCSI_lun


inq                                    (use to get serial numbers)
Labelling format
Partitioning vxdiskadm



Filesystem newfs or mkfs



Install Emulex driver, san packages (saninfo, hbanyware), firmware (lputil)
Configure /etc/modprobe.conf
Use lputil to update firmware
Use lputil to disable boot bios
Create new ram disk so changes to modprobe.conf can take affect.
Install ECC agent

List HBA’s

/usr/sbin/hbanyware/hbacmd listHBAS             (use to get WWN’s)

cat /proc/scsi/lpfc/*

HBA attributes /usr/sbin/hbanyware/hbacmd HBAAttrib 10:00:00:00:c9:49:28:47

cat /sys/class/scsi_host/host*/infoHBA port/usr/sbin/hbanyware/hbacmd PortAttrib 10:00:00:00:c9:49:28:47HBA firmwarelputilFabric logincat /sys/class/scsi_host/host*/stateDisk availablecat /proc/scsi/scsi

fdisk -l |grep -I Disk |grep sd

inq                                  (use to get serial numbers)
 Labellingparted -s /dev/sda mklabel msdos     (like labelling in solaris)
parted -s /dev/sda printPartitioningfdisk

Filesystemmkfs -j -L <disk label> /dev/vx/dsk/datadg/vol01


HBA Info /etc/powermt display 
Disk Info /etc/powermt display dev=all
Rebuild /kernel/drv/emcp.conf /etc/powercf -q
Reconfigure powerpath using emcp.conf /etc/powermt config
Save the configuration /etc/powermt save
Enable and Disable HBA cards used for testing /etc/powermt display (get card ID)

/etc/powermt disable hba=3072
/etc/powermt enable hba=3072