Solaris OS Processes

Every program you run in the Solaris OS creates a process. When you log in and start the shell, you start a process. When you perform a command or when you open an application, you start a process.

The system starts processes called daemons. Daemons are processes that run in the background and provide services. For instance, the desktop login daemon (dtlogin) provides a graphical prompt that you use to log in.

Using a PID

Every process has a unique process identification number (PID), which the kernel uses to track, control, and manage the process.

Using Process UID and GID Numbers

Each process is associated with a UID and a GID. These numbers indicate who owns a process and determine the functions of a process. Generally the UID and GID associated with a process are the same as the UID and GID of the user who started the process.

Understanding the Parent Process

When one process creates another, the first process is considered to be the parent of the new process. The new process is called the child process.

While the child process runs, the parent process waits. When the child finishes its task, it informs the parent process. The parent process then terminates the child process. If the parent process is an interactive shell, a prompt appears, indicating that it is ready for a new command.

Viewing a Process

You can use the process status (ps) command to list the processes that are scheduled to run in that shell. The ps command has several options you can use to determine which processes to display and how to format the output.

 

Using the ps Command

The syntax for the ps command is as follows:

ps options

For each process, the ps command displays the PID, the terminal identifier (TTY), the cumulative execution time (TIME), and the command name (CMD).

Identifying the ps Options

The table describes some of the options you can use with the ps command.

Options for the ps Command
Option Description
-e
Prints information about every process on the system, including the PID, TTY, TIME, and CMD
-f
Generates a full (verbose) listing, which adds fields including the UID, parent process identification number (PPID), and process start time (STIME)
Note: Refer to the online man pages for a complete list of options for the ps command.

Displaying a Listing of All Processes

You can use the ps -ef command to view a listing of all the processes currently scheduled to run on the system. The following example shows how you can use the ps -ef command to display a listing of all processes.

$ ps -ef | more
 UID	PID	PPID	C	STIME	TTY		TIME	CMD
root	  0	   0	0	Oct 23	 ?		0:18	sched
root	  1	   0	0	Oct 23	 ?		0:01	/etc/init -
root	  2	   0	0	Oct 23	 ?		0:00	pageout
root	  3	   0	0	Oct 23	 ?		17:47	fsflush
root	  7	   1	0	Oct 23	 ?		0:00	/lib/svc/bin/svc.startd
root	  9	   1	0	Oct 23	 ?pse		0:00	svc.configd
--More--
... (output truncated)

Searching for Files and Directories Using the find command

The find command recursively descends the directory tree in the path name list, looking for the files that match the search criteria. As the find command locates the files that match those criteria, the path to each file is displayed on the screen.

The syntax for the find command is:

find pathnames expressions actions

The table shows the pathname, expression, and action arguments for the find command.

Arguments for the find Command
Argument Definition
pathname
The absolute or relative path where the search originates.
expression
The search criteria specified by one or more options. Specifying multiple options causes the find command to use the boolean operator and, so all listed expressions must be verified as true.
action The action required after the files have been located. The default action is to print all path names matching the criteria to the screen.

The table describes some of the expressions that you can use with the find command.

Expressions for the find Command
Expression Definition
-name filename
Finds files matching the specified filename. Metacharacters are acceptable if placed inside " ".
-size [+|-]n
Finds files that are larger than +n, smaller than -n, or exactly n. The n represents 512-byte blocks.
-atime [+|-]n
Finds files that have been accessed more than +n days, less than -n days, or exactly n days.
-mtime [+|-]n
Finds files that have been modified more than +n days ago, less than -n days ago, or exactly n days ago.
-user loginID
Finds all files that are owned by the loginID name.
-type
Finds a file type, for example, f (file) or d (directory).
-perm
Finds files that have certain access permission bits.

The table describes the action arguments for the find command.

Actions for the find Command
Action Definition
-exec command {} ;
Runs the specified command on each file located. A set of braces, {}, delimits where the file name is passed to the command from the preceding expressions. A space, backslash, and semicolon ( ;) delimits the end of the command. There must be a space before the backslash ().
-ok command {} ;
Requires confirmation before the find command applies the command to each file located. This is the interactive form of the -exec command.
-print
Instructs the find command to print the current path name to the terminal screen. This is the default.
-ls
Displays the current path name and associated statistics, such as the inode number, the size in kilobytes, protection mode, the number of hard links, and the user.

To search for a file called dante starting in your home directory, perform the command:

$ find ~ -name dante
/export/home/user1/dante
$ 

To search from your home directory, looking for files or directories called removefile and asking before deleting any matches to the pattern, perform the command:

$ touch removefile
$ find ~ -name file1 -OK rm {} ;
< rm ... /export/home/user1/removefile >? y
$ ls removefile
$

To search from your home directory, looking for files or directories called removefile and deleting any matches to the pattern, perform the command:

$ touch removefile
$ find ~ -name core -exec rm {} ;
< rm ... /export/home/user1/removefile >? y
$ ls removefile
$

To look for all files that have not been modified in the last two days starting in the current directory, perform the command:

$ find . -mtime +2
<output will vary on each system>

To find files larger than 10 blocks (512-byte blocks) starting in your home directory, perform the command:

$ find ~ -size +10
/export/home/user1/.sh_history
/export/home/user1/dir1/coffees/beans
/export/home/user1/tutor.vi
<example output from command, output will vary on each system>
Note: Your output will vary depending on the activity performed in your home directory.

Searching for Content in Files Using the fgrep

You can use the fgrep command to search a file for a literal string or a group of characters. The fgrep command reads all regular expression characters literally. Regular expression metacharacters have no special meaning to the fgrep command, for example a ? character, is interpreted as a question mark, and a $ character is interpreted as a dollar sign.

The syntaxfor the fgrep command is:

fgrep options string filenames

To search for all lines in the file containing a literal asterisk (*) character, perform the command:

$ fgrep '*' /etc/system
*ident  "@(#)system     1.18    97/06/27 SMI" /* SVR4 1.5 */
*
* SYSTEM SPECIFICATION FILE
*
* moddir:
*
*	 Set the search path for modules.  This has a format similar to the
*	 csh path variable. If the module isn't found in the first directory
*	 it tries the second and so on. The default is /kernel /usr/kernel
... (output truncated)

Searching for Content in Files Using the egrep

The egrep command searches the contents of one or more files for a pattern using extended regular expression metacharacters. Extended regular expression metacharacters include the regular expression metacharacters that the grep command uses, plus some additional metacharacters. The table describes the additional metacharacters.

Extended Regular Expression Metacharacters
Metacharacter Purpose Sample Result
+
Matches one or more of the preceding characters
'[a-z]+ark'
Matches one or more lowercase letters followed by ark (for example, airpark, bark, dark, landmark, shark, sparkle, or trademark)
x|y
Matches either x or y
'apple|orange'
Matches for either expression
( | )
Groups characters
'(1|2)+'
'search(es|ing)+'
Matches for one or more occurrences (for example, 1 or 2, searches, or searching)

The syntax for the egrep command is:

egrep -options pattern filenames

To search for all lines containing one or more lowercase alphabets followed by the pattern ‘body‘ one or more times, perform the command:

$ egrep '[a-z]+body' /etc/passwd
nobody:x:60001:60001:NFS Anonymous Access User:/:
nobody4:x:65534:65534:SunOS 4.x NFS Anonymous Access User:/:

To search for lines containing the pattern Network Admin or uucp Admin, perform the command:

$ egrep '(Network|uucp) Admin' /etc/passwd
uucp:x:5:5:uucp Admin:/usr/lib/uucp:
nuucp:x:9:9:uucp Admin:/var/spool/uucppublic:/usr/lib/uucp/uucico
listen:x:37:4:Network Admin:/usr/net/nls:

Searching for Content in Files Using grep

The term grep means to globally search for a regular expression and print all lines containing it. When you use the grep command every line containing a specified character pattern prints to the screen. Using the grep command does not change file content.

The syntax for the grep command is:

grep options pattern filenames

The options that you use with the grep command can modify your search. Each option except the -w option can be used with the egrep and fgrep commands. The table describes the options for the grep command.

Options for the grep Command
Option Definition
-i
Searches for both uppercase and lowercase characters
-l
Lists the names of files with matching lines
-n
Precedes each line with the relative line number in the file
-v
Inverts the search to display lines that do not match pattern
-c
Counts the lines that contain pattern
-w
Searches for the expression as a complete word, ignoring those matches that are substrings of larger words

To search for all lines that contain the pattern root in the /etc/group file and view their line numbers, perform the command:

$ grep -n root /etc/group
1:../../../:0:root
2:other::1:root
3:bin::2:root,bin,daemon
4:sys::3:root,bin,adm
5:adm::4:root,daemon
6:uucp::5:root
7:mail::6:root
8:tty::7:root,adm
9:lp::8:root,adm
10:nuucp::9:root
12:daemon::12:root
$ 
Note: For multiple file searches, the results show only the file name in which the pattern was found. For single file searches, only the matching entries are displayed.

To search for all lines that do not contain the pattern root in the /etc/group file, perform the command:

$ grep -v root /etc/group
staff::10:
sysadmin::14:
smmsp::25:smmsp
gdm::50:
webservd::80:
nobody::60001:
noaccess::60002:
nogroup::65534:
$ 

To search for the names of the files that contain the pattern root in the /etc directory, perform the command:

$ cd /etc
$ grep -l root group passwd hosts
group
passwd
$

To count the number of lines containing the pattern root in the /etc/group file, perform the command:

$ grep -c root group
11
$

The grep command supports several regular expression metacharacters to further define a search pattern. The table describes some of the regular expression metacharacters.

Regular Expression Metacharacters
Metacharacter Purpose Example Result
^ Beginning of line anchor '^pattern' Matches all lines beginning with pattern
$ End of line anchor 'pattern$' Matches all lines ending with pattern
. Matches one character 'p.....n' Matches lines containing a “p,” followed by five characters, and followed by an “n
* Matches the preceding item zero or more times '[a-z]*' Matches lowercase alphanumeric characters or nothing at all
[ ] Matches one character in the pattern '[Pp]attern' Matches lines containing Pattern or pattern
[^] Matches one character not in the pattern '[^a-m]attern' Matches lines that do not contain “a” through “m” and followed by attern

To print all lines that begin with the letters no in the /etc/passwd file, perform the command:

$ grep '^no' /etc/passwd
nobody:x:60001:60001:NFS Anonymous Access User:/:
noaccess:x:60002:60002:No Access User:/:
nobody4:x:65534:65534:SunOS 4.x NFS Anonymous Access User:/:
$

To print all lines containing an “A,” followed by three characters, followed by an “n” in the /etc/passwd file, perform the command:

$ grep 'A...n' /etc/passwd
adm:x:4:4:Admin:/var/adm
lp:x:71:8:Line Printer Admin:/usr/spool/lp
uucp:x:5:5:uucp Admin:/usr/lib/uucp
nuucp:x:9:9:uucp Admin:/var/spool/uucppublic:/usr/lib/uucp/uucico
listen:x:37:4:Network Admin:/usr/net/nls

To print all lines that end with the word adm in the /etc/group file, perform the command:

$ grep 'adm$' /etc/group
sys::3:root,bin,adm
tty::7:root,adm
lp::8:root,adm

STEPS TO CREATE UNPROTECTED STANDARD DEVICES DMX / SYMMETRIX

1      Verify the free space available in MBs

SUN1#symconfigure   -sid  277  list  -freespace –unit MB

  • Now the free space in SYMM 277 is displayed in MBs example

1278888 MB

2      Verify any configuration sessions are running

SUN1#symconfigure   -sid  277 verify

  • It verifies if any configurations are running

 

3     Verify if any locks have been enforced upon SYM

SUN1#symcfg   -sid  277  list  -lockn

  • It displays the lock number if any lock has been enforced locks can be from 0 to 15. (Example : configuration lock =15)

 

4     To release the lock (example 15)

SUN1#syncfg   -sid   277  release  -lockn    15

  • Lock released

 

5     Now create a text file using vi editor to submit parameters to commit

the LUN configuration

SUN1#vi  create_GK

Create  dev count =1 size=5 emulation=fba config=unprotected;

:wq

  • count denotes number of devices to be created
  • Size mentioned in cylinders one cyl = 0.5x MB
  • Emulation refers to fba(fixed block architecture 512 bytes)used in open systems.
  • Config refers to the protection enforced on device

6     Commit the configuration

SUN1#symconfigure  -sid   277  -v  -f   create_GK    commit –nop

 

  • configuration is saved and six LUNs are created
  • phases of this command are preview, prepare and commit
  • -v verbose mode
  • -f file parameter create_GK  LUN specifications are enclosed
  • Commit: to perform the activity
  • -nop: non interactive session and no prompting

7      Discover the sym devices

SUN1#symcfg discover

  • Solution enabler in host sends an API call through HBA to sym
  • Gate keeper devices receives the API call
  • Downloads the configuration of sym in IMPL.bin file to host
  • This configuration is stored in /var/sym_api/db directory of host

8      Scan for new devices IO level at host

SUN1#devfsadm  -Cv

  • It verifies for newly added devices and also the new device drivers

 

9       To list the devices

SUN1#symdev  list

  • displays the newly added devices
  • the LUN number is given in hexa decimal code (0000 – ffff)
  • as the devices are not mapped the directors field displays ???:???
  • in our session let us suppose the address of LUN 0011

10     To display the LUNs, which have not been mapped

SUN1#symdev list – noport

  • displays the sym devices which have not been mapped to any of the front-end directors and its ports

11    To display the available front end ports

SUN1#symcfg –sid 277  list  -connections

  • it displays the front end directors and their ports to which the hosts are connected

12    Check the available address in sym

SUN1#symcfg  -sid  277  list  -available  -addresses  -dir  1c –p 0

SUN1#symcfg  -sid  277  list  -available  -addresses  -dir  1d –p 0

SUN1#symcfg  -sid  277  list  -available  -addresses  -dir  16c –p 0

SUN1#symcfg  -sid  277  list  -available  -addresses  -dir  16d –p 0

  • It shows the available logical unit address to which the sym devices in host can be mapped
  • The available logical address to map is seen in the last field which is preceded by status field where it shows available

example :

*        – AVAILABLE-        003

  • The logical unit address is in hexadecimal number .

13   Create a file to Map the devices and the specifications

SUN1# vi map_GK

Map dev 0011  to dir1c:0, Lun=003;

Map dev 0011  to dir1d:0, Lun=003;

Map dev 0011  to dir16c:0, Lun=003;

Map dev 0011  to dir16d:0, Lun=003;

:wq

  • Map the sym devices with the Lun address 001  in sym box  through the front end directors port 0

14    Commit the activity

SUN1#symconfigure –sid 277 –v –f  map_GK commit –nop

  • Configuration is saved and  LUN is Mapped
  • Phases of this command are preview, prepare and commit
  • -v verbose mode
  • -f file parameter map_LUN  LUN specifications are enclosed
  • Commit: to perform the activity
  • -nop: non interactive session and no prompting

15     Scan the devices once again at host level

SUN1#devfsadm –Cv

  • Scans the changes in hosts

16      Check the controller

SUN1# fcinfo

  • Displays controller number and its wwpn address

 

 

17  Configure the controller

SUN#cfgadm –c configure C3

  • Configure the host controller c3 to map the symdevs with LUN address

18   Discover the sym devices

SUN1#symcfg discover

19   To list the devices

SUN1#symdev list

  • Displays the newly added & mapped sym devices
  • As the devices are  mapped the directors field displays director number and port

If the devices are not mapped properly reboot the host onceLNot Recommended

STEPS TO CREATE BCV DEVICES DMX / SYMMETRIX

1       Verify the free space available in MBs

SUN1#symconfigure   -sid  277  list  -freespace –unit MB

  • Now the free space in SYMM 277 is displayed in MBs example

1278888 MB

2      Verify any configuration sessions are running

SUN1#symconfigure   -sid  277 verify

  • It verifies if any configurations are running

 

3      Verify if any locks have been enforced upon SYM

SUN1#symcfg   -sid  277  list  -lockn

  • It displays the lock number if any lock has been enforced locks can be from 0 to 15. (Example : configuration lock =15)

 

4       To release the lock (example 15)

SUN1#syncfg   -sid   277 release -lockn    15

  • Lock released

 

5      Now create a text file using vi editor to submit parameters to commit

the unprotected LUN configuration

SUN1#vi  create_BCV

Create  dev count =8 size=958 emulation=fba config=unprotected;

:wq

 

 

  • Count denotes number of devices to be created
  • Size mentioned in cylinders one cyl = 0.5x MB
  • Emulation refers to fba(fixed block architecture 512 bytes)used in open systems.
  • Config refers to the protection enforced on device

6     Commit the configuration

SUN1#symconfigure  -sid   277  -v  -f   create_LUN    commit –nop

 

  • Configuration is saved and eight LUNs are created
  • Phases of this command are preview, prepare and commit
  • -v verbose mode
  • -f file parameter create_LUN  LUN specifications are enclosed
  • Commit: to perform the activity
  • -nop: non interactive session and no prompting

7          Discover the sym devices

SUN1#symcfg  discover

  • Solution enabler in host sends an API call through HBA to sym
  • Gate keeper devices receives the API call
  • Downloads the configuration of sym in IMPL.bin file to host
  • This configuration is stored in /var/sym_api/db directory of host

8     Scan for new devices IO level at host

SUN1#devfsadm  -Cv

  • It verifies for newly added devices and also the new device drivers

 

9        To list the devices

SUN1#symdev  list

  • Displays the newly added devices
  • The LUN number is given in hexa decimal code (0000 – ffff)
  • As the devices are not mapped the directors field displays ???:???
  • in our session let us suppose the addresses of 8LUNs are 0009 – 0010
  • 0000 lun is for VCM ,0001- 0006 for protected and in most of the cases 0007 and 0008 are automatically assigned by symm to sfs luns

10                  To convert the devices to BCV devices create a configuration file

SUN1#convert_BCV

Convert  dev  0009:0010 to BCV;

Wq

  • The unprotected standard devices more  than 5 cylinders cannot be mapped by front end directors, unless it is converted to BCV device, hence the devices 0009 to 0010 total 8 devices are being converted to BCV devices.

11      Commit the configuration

SUN1#symconfigure  -sid   277  -v  -f   convert_BCV    commit –nop

  • configuration is saved and eight LUNs are converted
  • phases of this command are preview, prepare and commit
  • -v verbose mode
  • -f file parameter create_LUN, here  LUN specifications are enclosed
  • Commit: to perform the activity
  • -nop: non interactive session and no prompting

12     To display the LUNs which have not been mapped

SUN1#symdev list – noport

  • Displays the sym devices which have not been mapped to any of the front-end directors and its ports
  1. To display the available front end ports

SUN1#symcfg –sid  277  list  -connections

  • It displays the front end directors and their ports to which the hosts are connected
  1. To check the available address in sym

SUN1#symcfg  -sid  277  list  -available  -addresses  -dir  1c –p 0

SUN1#symcfg  -sid  277  list  -available  -addresses  -dir  1d –p 0

SUN1#symcfg  -sid  277  list  -available  -addresses  -dir  16c –p 0

SUN1#symcfg  -sid  277  list  -available  -addresses  -dir  16d –p 0

  • It shows the available logical unit address to which the sym devices in host can be mapped

    • The available logical address to map is seen in the last field which is preceded by status field where it shows available

example :

*        – AVAILABLE-        002

  • The logical unit address is in hexadecimal number.

 

 

 

 

15      Create a file to Map the devices and the specifications

SUN1# vi map_BCV

Map dev 0009:0010  to dir1c:0, Lun=002;

Map dev 0009:0010  to dir1d:0, Lun=002;

Map dev 0009:0010  to dir16c:0, Lun=002;

Map dev 0009:0010  to dir16d:0, Lun=002;

:wq

  • Map the sym devices with the Lun address 002  in sym box  through the front end directors port 0

16  Commit the activity

SUN1#symconfigure –sid 277 –v –f  map_BCV commit –nop

  • Configuration is saved and eight  LUNs are Mapped
  • Phases of this command are preview, prepare and commit
  • -v verbose mode
  • -f file parameter map_LUN  LUN specifications are enclosed
  • Commit: to perform the activity
  • -nop: non interactive session and no prompting

17  Scan the devices once again at host level

SUN1#devfsadm –Cv

  • Scans the changes in hosts

13         Check the controller

SUN1# fcinfo

  • Displays controller number and its wwpn address

14         configure the controller

SUN#cfgadm –c configure C3

  • Configure the host controller c3 to map the symdevs with LUN address

20   Discover the sym devices

SUN1#symcfg discover

21   To list the devices

SUN1#symdev list

  • Displays the newly added & mapped sym devices
  • As the devices are  mapped the directors field displays ***:**

If the devices are not mapped properly reboot the host onceLNot Recommended

STEPS TO CREATE STANDARD DEVICES WITH TWO WAY PROTECTION

  • Verify the free space available in MBs

SUN1#symconfigure   -sid  277  list  -freespace –unit MB

  • now the free space in SYMM 277 is displayed in MBs example

1278888 MB

  • verify any configuration sessions are running

SUN1#symconfigure   -sid  277 verify

  • it verifies if any configurations are running

 

  • verify if any locks have been enforced upon SYM

SUN1#symcfg   -sid  277  list  -lockn

  • it displays the lock number if any lock has been enforced locks can be from 0 to 15. (Example : configuration lock =15)

 

  • to release the lock (example 15)

SUN1#syncfg   -sid   277  release  -lockn    15

  • lock released

 

  • now create a text file using vi editor to submit parameters to commit

the LUN configuration

SUN1#vi  create_LUN

Create  dev count =6 size=958 emulation=fba config=2-way-mir;

:wq

 

  • Count denotes number of devices to be created
  • Size mentioned in cylinders one cyl = 0.5x MB
  • Emulation refers to fba(fixed block architecture 512 bytes)used in open systems.
  • Config refers to the protection enforced on device
  1. Commit the configuration

SUN1#symconfigure  -sid   277  -v  -f   create_LUN    commit –nop

 

  • configuration is saved and six LUNs are created
  • phases of this command are preview, prepare and commit
  • -v verbose mode
  • -f file parameter create_LUN  LUN specifications are enclosed
  • Commit: to perform the activity
  • -nop: non interactive session and no prompting
  • Discover the sym devices

SUN1#symcfg  discover

  • Solution enabler in host sends an API call through HBA to sym
  • Gate keeper devices receives the API call
  • Downloads the configuration of sym in IMPL.bin file to host
  • This configuration is stored in /var/sym_api/db directory of host

  • scan for new devices IO level at host

SUN1#devfsadm  -Cv

  • it verifies for newly added devices and also the new device drivers

 

  • To list the devices

SUN1#symdev  list

  • displays the newly added devices
  • the LUN number is given in hexa decimal code (0000 – ffff)
  • As the devices are not mapped the directors field displays ???:???
  • In our session let us suppose the addresses of 6LUNs are 0001 – 0006
  • To display the LUNs which have not been mapped

SUN1#symdev list – noport

  • Displays the sym devices which have not been mapped to any of the frontend directors and its ports
  • To display the available front end ports

SUN1#symcfg –sid  277  list  -connections

  • It displays the front end directors and their ports to which the hosts are connected
  • To check the available address in sym

SUN1#symcfg  -sid  277  list  -available  -addresses  -dir  1c –p 0

SUN1#symcfg  -sid  277  list  -available  -addresses  -dir  1d –p 0

SUN1#symcfg  -sid  277  list  -available  -addresses  -dir  16c –p 0

SUN1#symcfg  -sid  277  list  -available  -addresses  -dir  16d –p 0

  • It shows the available logical unit address to which the sym devices in host can be mapped
  • The available logical address to map is seen in the last field which is preceded by status field where it shows available

example :

*        -  AVAILABLE-        001

  • The logical unit address is in hexadecimal number.
  • create a file to Map the devices and the specifications

SUN1# vi map_LUN

Map dev 0001:0006  to dir1c:0, Lun=001;

Map dev 0001:0006  to dir1d:0, Lun=001;

Map dev 0001:0006  to dir16c:0, Lun=001;

Map dev 0001:0006  to dir16d:0, Lun=001;

:wq

  • Map the sym devices with the Lun address 001  in sym box  through the front end directors port 0
  • Commit the activity

SUN1#symconfigure –sid 277 –v –f  map_LUN commit –nop

  • Configuration is saved and six LUNs are Mapped
  • phases of this command are preview, prepare and commit
  • -v verbose mode
  • -f file parameter map_LUN  LUN specifications are enclosed
  • Commit: to perform the activity
  • -nop: non interactive session and no prompting
  • Scan the devices once again at host level

SUN1#devfsadm –Cv

  • Scans the changes in hosts
  • Check the controller

SUN1# fcinfo

  • Displays controller number and its wwpn address

 

  • configure the controller

SUN#cfgadm –c configure C3

  • Configure the host controller c3 to map the symdevs with LUN address
  • Discover the sym devices

SUN1#symcfg  discover

  • To list the devices

SUN1#symdev  list

  • Displays the newly added & mapped sym devices
  • As the devices are  mapped the directors field displays director number and port

If the devices are not mapped properly reboot the host onceLNot Recommended

LUN / METAVOLUME CREATION AND MAPPING DMX / SYMMETRIX

  • Physical discs are not visible to hosts.

 

  • Logical volumes can be created from physical discs and they are called “hyper volume extension”.

 

  • 256 hypers can be created on a physical disc.

 

  • Every hyper has its own personality.

 

  • Initially any hyper is known as a standard device.

 

  • Minimum size of a hyper can be 8mb and maximum size is 32 GB (varies according to the micro code).

 

  • Standard device can be unprotected, two ways mirrored, three ways mirrored, 4 way mirrored as well as raid 5 protected.

 

  • Unprotected Standard device less than 5 cylinders are visible to the host which can be configured as gate keeper device.

 

  • Standard device is visible to host when it is mapped to front end director.

 

  • Once the LUN is deleted it should be unmapped.

 

  • Standard device can be configured to different personalities which may not be visible to host unless it is protected.

 

  • To set the personalities change the attributes.

 

  • To convert standard device to BCV device it should be an unprotected device.

 

  • Once standard device is configured to BCV, the BCV can become two ways mirrored.

 

  • An unprotected standard device with less than 5 cylinders can be configured as gate keeper device.

 

  • If gate keeper device is not configured, any volume can become gate keeper.

 

  • Without gatekeeper EMC control center and solution enabler cannot be operated by host on SYMM.

 

  • SYMM cannot be managed through TCP/IP stack as it is a fiber channel device.

 

  • It requires FC adapter and HBA.

 

  • Solution enabler installed in the host sends API calls through the HBA across fiber channel to gate keeper device upon receiving the API’s gate keeper allows the commands execute on SYMM

METAVOLUME: -   The larger volumes created by concatenating or striping the smaller hyper volumes.

  • The size of a Meta volume depends on the micro code.
  • 2 to 255 hyper volumes can be joined to a Meta volume.
  • All hypers joined to a Meta volume should be of same size.
  • They should follow same protection mechanism.
  • Meta volume is identified by its Meta head i.e., the first volume of the Meta volume.
  • Volumes are mapped to the host through the front end director ports.
  • The ports have some flags either disabled or enabled.

 

  • The following flags should be enabled
  1. C bit enabled  for common serial number to volume
  2. SCSI persistent reservations enabled for cluster environment
  3. VCM enabled
  • To change the status of port flags offline the ports of directors, once

Changed, enable the directors.

 

LAB SESSION:-

 

  • Create six standard devices two way protected of size 450MB
  • Create eight BCV devices of size 450MB
  • Create a device unprotected of size five cylinders
  • Map the devices
  • Mask the devices

 

NOTE:-

For convenience, following device names are given through out the programme.

i)                   primary host name SUN1

ii)                backup host name SUN2

iii)              SYMM IDs  277 & 694

iv)              Fe directors  1c, 1d ,16c and 16d  port No=0

How to Reset Forgotten MySQL Root Password

First things first. Log in as root and stop the mysql daemon. Now lets start up the mysql daemon and skip the grant tables which store the passwords.

#mysqld_safe –skip-grant-tables

You should see mysqld start up successfully. If not, well you have bigger issues. Now you should be able to connect to mysql without a password.

#mysql –user=root mysql

Welcome to the MySQL monitor.  Commands end with ; or g.
Your MySQL connection id is 2 to server version: 5.0.22

Type ‘help;’ or ‘h’ for help. Type ‘c’ to clear the buffer.

mysql> update user set Password=PASSWORD(‘new-password’) where user=’root’;
mysql>flush privileges;
mysql>exit;

Now stop your running mysqld, then restart it normally. You should be good to go. Try not to forget your password again.